AccueilCivilians at stake: mass violence in Asia and Europe from 1931 to the present

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Publié le mardi 08 décembre 2015 par João Fernandes

Résumé

On the occasion of the seventieth anniversary of the end of World War II, the Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence has organized an international and interdisciplinary meeting. By bringing together key innovative specialists in philosophy, political science, law and history, the conference intends to reflect on the definition and role of civilians during mass violence. Civilians are understood here as victims of bombing or as actors resisting to ground-based mass violence. The meeting focuses on World War II as a touchstone period but also tries to assess its role in the longue durée up to the present. It takes the term “world war” literally, with special emphasis on the Asian continent, aiming at the opening of new horizons leading to more globally oriented research.

Annonce

Presentation

On the occasion of the seventieth anniversary of the end of World War II, the Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence has organized an international and interdisciplinary meeting.

By bringing together key innovative specialists in philosophy, political science, law and history, the conference intends to reflect on the definition and role of civilians during mass violence. Civilians are understood here as victims of bombing or as actors resisting to ground-based mass violence.

The meeting focuses on World War II as a touchstone period but also tries to assess its role in the longue durée up to the present. It takes the term “world war” literally, with special emphasis on the Asian continent, aiming at the opening of new horizons leading to more globally oriented research.

Program 

16th December 2015

4:00 pm OPENING SESSION

Welcome address: Frédéric Mion, President of Sciences Po

Opening remarks : Claire Andrieu, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire

Roundtable on films Shina No Yoru (1940) and The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957)

With projection of films excerpts

A roundtable discussion led by historians Carol Gluck, Columbia University, and Michiko Nakahara, Waseda University.

17th December 2015

The Bombing Of Civilians, Policyandpractice In Comparative Perspective

Convenors: C. Andrieu, A. Colonomos, E.Maïlander

The aim is to analyze the evolution of the policies and practices of civilian bombing as well as of the international standards regarding them. Political scientists and philosophers will question international humanitarian law and the ethical dilemmas raised by aerial bombings. Historians will provide case studies that offer new perspectives and highlight the diversity and changes in historical approaches to the ongoing debate.

International law has long evinced interest in standards to apply to the use of aerial bombing. This debate has intensified since the 1990s. Several issues have emerged. Are the rules of proportionality and distinction better applied today than in the past? What is a practical definition of proportionality in current conflicts? Does technological progress in accuracy of targeting reflects a moral criterion or is it rather the result of tactical efficiency?

The historical approaches will provide both a retrospective and comparative view. The goal is to examine the evolution of analysis over the past seventy years and to highlight the shift of the debate in the social sciences across the international contexts of postwar, cold war, and post-cold war as well as in the various national political contexts since 1945.

National experiences of bombing have shaped the different historical accounts in legal analyses and in the international order. For instance, the United States, which most consistently resorted to heavy bombardment (not only during World War II but also subsequently in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya), is also the country in which historians seem seldom to agree, at least in the 1995 controversy around the Enola Gay exhibition. In contrast, France has remained until recently relatively uninterested in examining the history of German and Allied bombings of the country. The situation is changing, however, as scholars begin to apply the compassionate approach developed in the cases of German and Japanese civilians to the French case. These differences in  national  histories and historiographies of civilian bombing  are one  focus of this conference.

9:00 am OPENING, Alain Dieckhoff, Director of Sciences Po’s Center for International Studies (CERI)

Introduction, Karoline Postel-Vinay, Sciences Po-CERI, History and Diplomacy. The 70th Anniversary in East Asia

9:30 am Panel 1: Policies Of Civilian Bombing

Moderator: Maja Spanu, European University Institute

Speakers :

  • Neta Crawford, Boston University: US Beliefs about the Effectiveness and Morality of Strategic Bombing
  • Robert Pape, University of Chicago: Why Civilians are Still Vulnerable in the Precision Age

Discussant: Ariel Colonomos, Sciences Po-CERI, CNRS

11:15 am

Panel 2: Civilian Bombing And Legacies Of Wwii

Moderator: Constance Sereni, Université de Genève

Speakers:

  • Matthew Evangelista, Cornell University: Blockbusters, Nukes, and Drones: Trajectories of Change over a Century
  • Jérôme de Lespinois, Institute for Strategic Research (IRSEM), French Ministry of Defense: The Aerial Strategic Offensive: Doctrine and Practices, 1930s to 1945
  • Marine Guillaume,Sciences Po-CERI & Columbia University: The Impact of Napalm on US Strategic Bombing Doctrine and Practice, 1942-1975

Discussant: Mark Selden, Cornell University & Asia-Pacific Journal

2:30 pm

Panel 3: Civilian Bombings In National History And Memory

Moderator: Pierre Journoud, Université de Montpellier

Speakers: 

  • Bas von Benda-Beckmann, University of Amsterdam: Two German Historical Perspectives: the Allied Bombardments of Germany and Luftwaffe Bombardments of the West
  • Yuki Tanaka, Hiroshima Peace Institute, Hiroshima City University: Juxtaposing the Atomic Bombing and Japanese War Atrocities
  • Andrew Knapp, Reading University: The Horror and the Glory: Bomber Command in British Memories since 1945

Discussant: Claire Andrieu, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire

4:30 pm

Panel 4: World War Ii Bombings In Comparative Perspective

Moderator: Karoline Postel-Vinay, Sciences Po-CERI

Speakers:

  • Sheldon Garon, Princeton University: Defending Civilians against Aerial Bombardment: A Transnational History of Japanese, German, and British Home Fronts, 1918-1945
  • Mark Selden, Cornell University: Comparative Reflections on Japanese and American Bombings in the Pacific
  • Jennifer Evans, Carleton University: Searching for Normality in Abnormal times in Pre- and Post-1945 Berlin

Discussant: Mario del Pero, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire

18th December 2015

Local Resistance To Mass Violence In Asia And Europe

Convenors: C. Andrieu, A. Doglia

Comparisons between European and Asian patterns of war and violence can contribute to new understandings of these issues. With Japan’s empire as its focus, the conference seeks to develop analytical methodologies and comparative approaches to local, grassroots resistance to mass violence.

In contrast to the voluminous literature on resistance in France and Italy and on Chinese military resistance to the Japanese invasion, there is relatively little scholarly work on local resistance to wartime occupation in Asia. Will the understanding of resistance in occupied Europe also apply to Asia under Japanese domination? And how did the experience differ in colonized nations like Indochina and sovereign nations like China?

The task is also to investigate possible patterns of resistance. Although by now the study of those who stood against genocide is well established, civil opposition to other types of mass violence is less well treated. A study of civil opposition to mass violence may help to identify patterns of unarmed civil resistance and provoke more research to local resistance even under brutal wartime occupation regimes.

9:30 am

Panel 5: Local Resistance To Mass Violence As A Topic Of Research

Moderator: Jean-Marc Dreyfus, University of Manchester

Speakers:

  • Claire Andrieu, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire, Constructing and Rebuilding an Archetype: from 1940 to the Present
  • Joachim Scholtyseck, University of Bonn, John Rabe: Nankin-Berlin 1937-1945, from Rescue to Inaction

Discussant: Elissa Mailänder, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire

11:15 am

Panel 6: Local Resistance To Mass Violence In Sovereign Nations

Moderator: Michael Lucken, INALCO, Paris

Speakers:

  • Arnaud Doglia, University of Cambridge: Resistance in Japan, 1931-1945
  • Rana Mitter, Oxford University: Refugee Flight, Collaboration and Resistance to Japanese Occupation in the Initial Phase of the Sino-Japanese War, 1937-38
  • Masha Cerovic, Centre d’études franco-russes de Moscou: The People’s War: Insurgency and Civil War in the Occupied Territories of the Soviet Union, 1941-1944

Discussant: Sheldon Garon, Princeton University

2:30 pm

Panel 7: Local Resistance To Mass Violence In Colonial Asia

Moderator: Alain Delissen, EHESS, Paris

Speakers:

  • Celine Marangé, Institute for Strategic Research (IRSEM), French Ministry of Defense: Vietnamese Communists and the Japanese Occupation of Indochina, 1940-1945
  • Remco Raben, University of Amsterdam & Utrecht University: Local Resistance to Japanese Occupation in Indonesia
  • Michiko Nakahara, Waseda University: Reclaiming Agency: the 'Comfort Women' and Feminist Activism

Discussant: Yuki Tanaka, Hiroshima Peace Institute & Hiroshima City University

4:30 pm Roundtable

Moderator: Riva Kastoryano, Sciences Po-CERI, CNRS

Speakers:

  • Claire Andrieu, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire Ariel Colonomos, Sciences Po-CERI, CNRS Neta Crawford, Boston University
  • Carol Gluck, Columbia University
  • Yuki Tanaka, Hiroshima Peace Institute & Hiroshima City University

In partnership with:

  • the Asia-Pacific Journal,

  • the Center for International Studies at Sciences Po, the Center for History at Sciences Po.

and with the support of:

  • the French Ministry of Defense (DMPA, IRSEM), the Région Ile-de-France,

  • the Fondation de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.

Inscriptions

INSCRIPTION OBLIGATOIRE en utilisant les liens ci-dessous:

Scientific Committee 

  • ClaireAndrieu, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire, Paris,  
  • ArielColonomos, Sciences Po-CERI, CNRS, Paris,  
  • MarioDelPero, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire, Paris,  
  • ArnaudDoglia, University of Cambridge, Cambridge,
  • JeanMarc Dreyfus, University of Manchester, Manchester,  
  • Carol Gluck, Columbia University, New York,  
  • Riva Kastoryano, Sciences Po-CERI, CNRS, Paris,  
  • Elissa Mailänder, Sciences Po-Centre d’histoire, Paris,  
  • Karoline Postel-Vinay, Sciences  Po-CERI, Paris, 
  • Mark SeldenAsia-Pacific Journal, Cornell University, Ithaca.

Lieux

  • salle de conférences, Sciences Po-CERI - 56, rue Jacob
    Paris, France (75006)

Dates

  • mercredi 16 décembre 2015
  • jeudi 17 décembre 2015
  • vendredi 18 décembre 2015

Mots-clés

  • seconde guerre mondiale, bombardements, violence, masse, civils, Asie

Contacts

  • Nathalie Tenenbaum
    courriel : nathalie [dot] tenenbaum [at] sciencespo [dot] fr

URLS de référence

Source de l'information

  • Nathalie Tenenbaum
    courriel : nathalie [dot] tenenbaum [at] sciencespo [dot] fr

Pour citer cette annonce

« Civilians at stake: mass violence in Asia and Europe from 1931 to the present », Colloque, Calenda, Publié le mardi 08 décembre 2015, http://calenda.org/349813