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Children’s Culture in USSR, 1917-1941

La culture enfantine en URSS, 1917-1941

Objects, places and practices

Objets, lieux et pratiques

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Published on Wednesday, February 07, 2018 by João Fernandes

Summary

Le présent colloque inaugure une série de rencontres internationales et interdisciplinaires consacrées à la culture enfantine en URSS (1917-1941). Il s’agit d’étudier les objets culturels créés pour et/ou par les enfants et relevant de la culture littéraire, textuelle, musicale, matérielle (comme les jouets), visuelle (illustration, imagerie murale fixe et mobile) et spectaculaire (cinéma, théâtre d’ombres et de marionnettes). Nous situerons ces objets dans leurs conditions de création, diffusion, réception et appropriation, et les comprendrons dans leurs dimensions pratiques et réflexives.

Announcement

Argument

At the beginning of the XXth century, the child became an important subject for scientific study and the question of his/her education became central for public organizations in both Europe and the United States. Russia was no exception to this movement. After they came to power, the Bolsheviks set out to take charge of an ever larger and diverse child population including delinquent and abandoned children, as well as non-Russian children living in Russia and the Republics, and children of peasants. The Bolsheviks aimed  to create a specific Soviet culture for children. This ambition was expressed in the discourse on children’s literature. In addition to Literary and textual culture, this project also pertained to musical,  visual and material (e.g. toys) cultures, which are now less well-known  fields.

Our project aims to focus on the study of these cultural objects and to analyze them in their conditions of creation, diffusion, reception and appropriation. We want to understand these objects, created by adults for children, in their practical and reflexive aspects. More broadly, we consider the child as a reader, spectator, listener, but also as an actor that was both a user and a creator of these objects. In this way, we want to analyze how children engaged with the cultural products made available to them and the creations of the children themselves. In turn, we will analyze how adults viewed these objects and choices.

We will define and compare the political, educational and artistic projects, the forms of objects, their modes of mediation, pedagogical methods and practices.

We will thus identify the specificities of a Soviet child’s culture, as well as the implicit or theorized representations of the child that a society shapes with regard to age, class, gender, ethnic origins. Finally, we will examine the functions of these objects and the ways in which they carry out their ideological work and shape their recipients on the cognitive and educational levels.

This collective project will tackle several questions: How did different actors and professions interact to create these objects? What were the main debates on their conception and how did these theoretical considerations fit with the creation of these objects? What was the place of cultural transfers in shaping these objects? In what places and contexts were these objects disseminated (school, library, youth organizations, family environment, etc.)? How were they used and by whom? What do the forms of these objects tell us about their authors and their recipients?

The study of cultural objects is at the crossroads of political, social, cultural, art, science and education histories but also of anthropology. This project seeks to bring together specialists from different disciplines and encourage a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach. We will also pay particular attention to the trans-national history and the circulation of people, objects and concepts. This context brings insights to the Russian and Soviet situation in its connection with other regimes and historical changes, such as the advent of leisure and consumer societies. Finally, this project will examine, in a nuanced way, the ruptures and continuities traditionally elaborated by historiography between the Imperial past and the Soviet regime on the one hand, and the 1920s and the beginning of Stalinism on the other, as shown by the choice of its chronological boundaries. 

Colloque organisé par le Centre Georges Chevrier (UMR 7366 CNRS-université de Bourgogne), en partenariat avec :

- la Fondation maison des sciences de l'homme (FMSH)

- le Centre d'études des mondes russe, causasien et centre européen (CERCEC)

- le Centre d'études franco-russes (CEFR) 

- le labex TransferS 

Programme

Jeudi 5 avril

9 h - Accueil

9 h 15 - Ouverture par Cécile Pichon-Bonin (Centre Georges Chevrier UMR 7366 )

Lieux, objets et méthodes d’apprentissage

  • 9 h 30 - Kirill Maslinskii, chercheur, Haute école d’économie, Saint-Pétersbourg, School discipline in children’s hands? Transformation of the idea and practices, 1918-1943
  • 10 h 05 - Dorena Caroli, Maître de conférences en histoire de la pédagogie, Université de Macerata, Italie, School exercise books as a source for studying the material culture of the school in the Soviet Union (1920s and 1930s)
  • 10 h 40 - Katia Cennet, maître de conférences, Université de Clermont-Ferrand, De Konduit et Chvambrania vers la réalité triomphante d’URSS
  • 11 h 15 - Irina Arzamastseva, Professeur de Littérature, Université pédagogique de Moscou, Children’s independent activity of the Soviet Union in 1920-1930-ies: through the pages of the magazine "Zateinik” ("Inventor"). 

De l’enfant-auteur à l’enfant-destinataire des images

  • 13 h 30 - Andy Byford, Senior Lecturer in the School of Modern Languages and Cultures, Durham University, Detskoe tvorchestvo: Pedology and the Scientific Study of Children’s Creative Output
  • 14 h 05 - Andrew Khan, Professor of Russian Literature, St Edmund Hall, Oxford University, Word and Image in Osip Mandelstam’s Verse for Children: The Child as Reader
  • 14 h 40 - Svetlana Maslinskaya, Institut de Littérature russe de l’Académie des Sciences de Russie, Saint-Pétersbourg, Plastic art paper: toy and movable books in 1920s — 1930s in Soviet Russia

Vendredi 6 avril

10 h - Accueil

Transferts culturels/transferts visuels

  • 10 h 10 - Marin Coudreau, École doctorale SCE (Sociétés, Cultures, Échanges), Université de Nantes- CRHIA, Camps d’été, randonnées et petits calibres : conquérir la nature et entrainer la relève, de l’Amérique à l’URSS, 1900-1940
  • 10 h 45 - Valérie Pozner, Directrice de recherche au CNRS-Thalim, Disney au Pays des Soviets
  • 11 h 20 - Claire Le Foll, senior lecturer, Université de Southampton, Cultural transfers in Yiddish and Belarusian children books in BSSR, 1921-1939
  • 13 h 30 - Rachel Mazuy, IHTP, Mon Camarade, 1933-1939, une revue illustrée pour enfants communistes. Étude des circulations et des transferts liés à l’URSS
  • 14 h 05 - Elitza Dulguerova, Maître de conférences, Université Paris I-INHA, Les paradoxes du « Monde des Jouets » dans la section soviétique de l’Exposition internationale des arts industriels et décoratifs modernes, Paris 1925

Places

  • Université de Bourgogne - Maison des sciences de l'Homme, Amphithéâtre - 2, boulevard Gabriel
    Dijon, France (21000)

Date(s)

  • Thursday, April 05, 2018
  • Friday, April 06, 2018

Attached files

Keywords

  • enfance, culture enfantine, Russie, URSS

Contact(s)

  • Cécile Pichon-Bonin
    courriel : cpichonbonin [at] gmail [dot] com
  • David Valageas
    courriel : david [dot] valageas [at] u-bourgogne [dot] fr

Reference Urls

Information source

  • David Valageas
    courriel : david [dot] valageas [at] u-bourgogne [dot] fr

To cite this announcement

« Children’s Culture in USSR, 1917-1941 », Colloquium, Calenda, Published on Wednesday, February 07, 2018, http://calenda.org/432288