“Africa e Mediterraneo” Journal
The debate on asylum and migration is bringing to light the theme of return; not that of an old migrant returning to his country of origin after a lifetime of work, but that of the younger generations who still find themselves in the midst of an existential and professional journey. There are more and more questions on the phenomenon of asylum seekers forced to deal with this step due to their asylum request being denied or their integration into society failing, as well as on the cases in which migrants return home deliberately out of choice with an enterprise project possibly favored by national and international policies.
Hegemonic neo-liberal discourse assumes that free competition on all levels sparks a virtuous cycle of economic growth, which eventually trickles down to poor populations. Over the past three decades, the idea that restrictive labour laws hamper such competition has justified the deregulation of labour in the North and the un-regulation of labour in the South, notably in South Asia, where labour relations had already mainly been informal. Various sociologists have noted that intensified economic interactions and the rise of competition have made individuals more likely to activate their social networks to protect their individual interests. In this respect, to what extent do social networks shape relations in the diverse South Asian labour markets? How do new forms of social groupings reconfigure competition and solidarity relations? What forms of social interactions prevail, emerge and weaken in the market: chosen solidarity and inherited solidarity; inter-caste and intra-caste solidarity; class solidarity; corporate solidarity etc.?
Performance, discipline et fatigue à l’épreuve du métier (XVIIe-XXe siècle)
La fatigue n’a cessé de meurtrir les corps au travail, mais, au sein des populations laborieuses, ce n'est qu'à la fin du XIXe siècle qu'elle est désignée comme telle. Elle devient ainsi progressivement un « mot à maux » que l'on associe à l'apparition de pathologies multiples qui, toutes, confinent à l'usure physique et psychologique des travailleurs. Cependant, dès que l’on se rapproche du terrain, la fatigue qu’éprouvent celles et ceux qui sont soumis aux exigences de la performance reste un objet fuyant.