HomeAfrican migrants in the world: between setbacks, identity and alternative culture

HomeAfrican migrants in the world: between setbacks, identity and alternative culture

African migrants in the world: between setbacks, identity and alternative culture

Les migrants africains dans le monde : entre déboires, identité et altérité culturelle

“CELTHO papers”, No. 4

« Cahiers du CELHTO », n°4

*  *  *

Published on Monday, March 05, 2018


La revue inter-africaine Les Cahiers du CELHTO, publiée par le Centre d’études linguistiques et historiques par tradition orale (CELHTO), un bureau spécialisé de la commission de l’Union africaine (UA) basé à Niamey au Niger, lance à l’endroit de toute la communauté des ecnseignants-chercheurs et des chercheurs, un appel à contribution en vue de la publication de son quatrième numéro, appelé à paraître en décembre 2018. Cette revue se veut être un organe de publication, mieux, un instrument d’échanges inter et intra disciplinaire, un espace dont l’objectif principal est de susciter, dans les rangs de la communauté des enseignants-chercheurs et des chercheurs, notamment africains, des réflexions scientifiques de fond sur des sujets ayant trait à la culture, aux savoirs savants et profanes, et aux questions connexes, liées au développement.



No one can raise the subject of African migrants today without thinking first and foremost of ‘illegal’ migration. This type of illegal migration nowadays occupies an important space in political discussions and the media, particularly with regard to the migration of Sub-Saharan people. Over months, some young African men and women with children risk everything, including their lives to undertake a perilous journey taking them across several borders and through the dangerous currents of the Mediterranean, in search of a better life in a norther country. Some lose their lives to the journey; others are sent home and those who reach their destination come to understand that their survival might not be any easier. Despite this, the lack of employment opportunities (sometimes socio-political crises) and the sombre outlook they are faced with in their country, millions of young Africans still prefer to migrate, often illegally.

The 14th of November 2017, the release of covert images of a night auction of young Africans in Tripoli on one of the largest American television stations, CNN, solicited a wave of shocks, propagating like wildfire on social media. In the face of the outcry, the images were denounced as ‘crimes of another era’ reminiscent of the three black centuries of transatlantic slave trade. The Secretary General of the United Nations, Antonio Guterres said he was ‘horrified’, the President of the African Union Alpha Condé  was ‘indignant’, the European Union ‘repulsed’ while France called for an ‘urgent’ advisory meeting from the UN Security Council on the matter. The shock was so powerful it was the subject of reflection and debate during the 5th African Union-European Union Summit in Abidjan on November 29th and 30th 2017. Important decisions were made at this summit with view to solving the crisis.

The release of these images of the sale of Black migrants has effectively portrayed more emphatically the weak voice of human rights organisations, the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) and the media, etc. in denouncing a phenomenon that has been going on for months according to the testimony of witnesses and victims.

The Black slave trade is one of the challenges African migrants face on their journey towards migration in Europe where they hope to find a better life. They are victims of networks of organised smugglers with branches in their country of origin as far as the Mediterranean with the town of Agadez in the centre of Niger a principle point of passage. This route, the network of smugglers and the tragedies that have occurred in the dessert are no secret. The facts are often revealed or recalled in Symposia such as that organised by the University of Agadez with the financial support of the Nigerien state and the European Union from the 12th to the 14th of December 2016 on ‘The Migratory Dynamics in West Africa: History, Flux and Current Challenges’. But the ongoing terrorist threat in the Sahel and the Sahara and the challenge of reducing poverty are, among others, bottlenecks in dismantling these networks. The challenges faced by these migrants on their journey are almost hidden under media blankets with tragedies in the Mediterranean taking precedence over the past number of years. Migrants who are implicated in preference policies initiated by governments of their countries of origin are in a particularly precarious situation of exclusion and are victimised.

Those who, against all odds, manage to reach a host country, generally do so illegally and are faced with a thorny situation of integration and cold coexistence with locals. We recall the wave of Black shootings in the United States as well as the surge of tens of thousands of Israelis who on the 23rd of May 2012 unanimously demanded the departure of Black immigrants from their country.

Within the African continent, African migrants are not treated any better. Excluding the case of Libya, the most recurrent example is that of South Africa. This country, which for a long time suffered under apartheid, plunged, with apartheid barely abolished, into a new form of segregation. Not only Whites, but especially non-South African Blacks are considered targets. Coming from Mali, Malawi, Congo, Mozambique, etc., living in townships, engaging in petty trade and accepting to do work South Africans refuse to do, these non-South African Blacks are targeted by xenophobes in South Africa. We recall the loss of human lives caused by a wave of xenophobia in South Africa killing 62 people in 2008. Occasionally, these acts are endorsed by an official speech of complicity[6].

Algeria must also be mentioned. In Algeria, nationals of other African countries are considered forgers, crooks, drug traffickers, carriers of illnesses burdening public health, etc. As such, they are often victims of xenophobia by Algerian nationals.

We also see that despite discussions on positive aspects of migration throughout the world where migrants contribute, in many cases, to socio-economic development both in their country of origin and their host country, migrants in general and Black migrants in particular, continue to be the subject of marginalisation. However, we live in a globalised world and the so-called world economy is supposed to produce global citizens[7], with a new outlook on mobility[8].

In addition to problems of survival and the upholding of rights of migrants that these situations pose, the challenges linked to migration at global level reignite the debate of alternative culture and identity. This relatively old debate was discussed, among others, by Iain Chambers in his work entitled Migrancy, Culture, Identity, published in 1994. In this work, the report of which was presented by Claire Sallaberry[9], the author shows that in a space of increasing mobility owing to globalisation, borders become porous, bringing the migrant to face a new form of flexibility, which undoubtedly calls into question the make-up of their identity. Furthermore, according to the author, because of the growing fear of ‘the other’, the predominant culture (generally local culture) usually sees the migrant as a political, cultural and existential threat. As such, on a cultural level, we find ourselves up against not only a particular incomprehension, but also and particularly the abject denial of the other due to the mixing operated by the majority against minority cultures.

The current edition of the CELHTO Copy proposes to take this topical subject of migration and treat it from a culture and identity perspective. As a consequence, the editor of the review invites original and free contributions to these questions. The researchers and lecturer-researchers, African or otherwise, interested in this topic are therefore invited to submit original articles of substance to the editorial board of this journal, following the following non-exhaustive themes:

  • Migration and identity : approach theories and concepts ;

  • Migrations, globalisation and African-ness ;

  • The construction of identity in migration situations ;

  • Cultural imagery on the African migrant ;

  • Cultural identity of the African migrant as portrayed in the literature ;

  • Cultural property in migratory situations ;

  • The tangible and intangible African heritage in the context of migration ;

  • African cultures facing the challenge of migration ;

  • etc.

Calendar and submission guidelines

  • 31 January - 30 April 2018 : receipt of original contributions ;

  • 1May- 31 August 2018 : evaluation of articles ;
  • 1 – 30September 2018 : correction of retained articles by authors ;
  • October-November 2018 : editorial work ;
  • End December 2018 latest: publication of the journal.

NB: For this edition, only the 15 best manuscripts retained by the Journal’s Scientific Council will be published. Authors are invited to submit their manuscripts following the standards of CAMES (Norcames) for which the journal Les Cahiers du CELHTO has been chosen, contained in the current work. The non-observance of these standards will result in rejection. Manuscripts should be sent to the following addresses: cahiers.celhto@gmail.com copying publications@celhto.org


The Publication Rights

Once the article is accepted by the Editorial Board, the author contacts the editorial staff of the review for the acquittal of the publishing rights.

Les Cahiers du CELHTO, being a review of research andinformation and non-profit making, authors will not receive rights.

Tests and Publications

Before publication, the author receivesby e-mail a set of tests to check. He must return the corrected version within a week to the Editor. Only typographical corrections are admitted to the tests.

The author receives after publication, the shot-in-hand of his article electronically in PDF format. It may receive, upon request, a copy of the journal by paying the shipping costs.

The articles are the property of the journal and may be subject, with theauthor’s agreement, to a posting online.

Each member of the scientific and reading committee graciously receives a copy of each issue of the journal.

Editorial team

Publication Director

  • Mr. Somé Magloire, Professor of History, University Ouaga 1 Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso);

Chairman of the Scientific Board

  • Mr. Mouckaga Hugues, Professor of History, Omar Bongo University of Libreville (Gabon)


  • Mr. Tsigbé Koffi Nutefé, Lecturer, Contemporary History, University of Lomé (Togo)
  • Editorial Board:
  • Mr. Gnaléga Benjamin, Programme Officer, CELHTO, Niamey (Niger)
  • Mr. Akue Adotevi MawusseKpakpo, Lecturer, Philosophy, University of Lomé (Togo)

Editorial standards[10]

The articles to be submitted to the journal must comply with the standards described below.

Overview of manuscripts

Each draft article should be sent as a Word document of a maximum of 50 000 characters (including spaces and notes), Garamond font, size 12 (for the text body, 10 for footnotes and  11 for quotes back ), 1.5 spacing, with the simplest possible format form (no styles, bullet points or  indentations, but paragraphs at the beginning of each paragraph).

The logical order of the text should adhere to the following framework:

  • a short title;
  • a signature with the  name (s),  author (s) and or lowercase names with a capital letter, the name and full address of the home institution, the mail and telephone of the author presented with the indicative, international;
  • a summary in French and English of maximum 10 lines;
  • a minimum of three and / or a maximum of five keywords;
  • an introduction;
  • a body;
  • a conclusion;
  • a Sources and References section.

The structuring of the body of the text is to be run as headlines and/or captioned as follows:

1. for the title of the first section;
1.1. for the subtitle of the first subsection;
1.2. etc.
2. for the title of the second section;
2.1. for the subtitle of the second subsection;
2.2. etc.

The sub-subtitles are to be avoided whenever possible.

The conclusion should be brief and focus on the results and original contribution to research.

The publication languages of the journal being French and English, the publication of a text into another language is subject to special authorization from the administration of the journal. Foreign words in French and English are in italics and without quotation marks.

The review bans the use of underscores which is replaced by the italic formatting.

The presentation of figures, maps, graphics ... must respect the mirror of the journal which is 16x24 cm. These documents must provide the source, the year and the scale (for cards).

The centuries are shown in Roman numerals, capital letters, followed by "e" superscript and a non-breaking space. Eg.The twentieth century. (XXe siècle, in French)

The capital letters are highlighted.

For quotes, use French quotation marks followed or preceded by a non-breaking space « », and simple English quotation marks ‘’, for quotes within quotes.
When a quotation exceeds four lines, it must be detached from the body of the text. In this case, it is neither preceded nor followed by quotes. Single spacing is used and the size of the quote is 11.

The footnotes are superscript Arabic numbers without brackets, placed before punctuation and outside of quotation marks for quotes.

For definitions of acronyms, only the initial of the first word is capitalized, unless it is a proper name or institutions.

Ex 1: CELHTO: CELHTO : Centre d’études linguistiques et historiques par tradition orale (Centre for Linguistic and HistoricalStudies by Oral Tradition).
Ex 2: AUF: Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (Francophonie is a propername of an institution, the initial iscapitalized).

Presentation of Sources and References.

The adopted bibliographic reference is that integrated in the text. It is as follows: (Author's name with initial capitalization, comma, year of publication comma, page on which the information was taken).

Ex: (B. Gnaléga, 2015, p.15)

Under the section Sources and Bibliography, sources will consist in showing, in a detailed manner, the oral sources and other primary and firsthand documents consulted and/or cities. They must be presented as follows:

For oral sources: in alphabetical order of names of informants in a table with a serial number, full names of informants, date and place of interview, quality and occupation of informants, their age or date of birth.

For the archives, it should be mentioned in words, in the first case, the documents preservation place, followed by the abbreviation in brackets. Is an abbreviation that is used in the following instances:

Ex: Paris, Archives Nationales (A. N.), 77, dossier 47 (artistes).

Ex : Archives des MuséesNationaux (A.M.N.), dossier de carrière, O275, fol. 1-149.

Bordeaux, Archives municipales (A.M. Bordeaux)

Do not forget to specify the serial numberand pagination of cited documents (fol. for handwritten documents).

In other cases, we would appreciate to meet the following models:

  • Works

ARASSE Daniel., 1999, L’Annonciation italienne. Une histoire de perspective, Paris, Hazan.

Second edition of a translated book:

BELTING Hans, 1998 (Munich 1993), Image et culte. Une histoire de l’art avant l’époque de l’art, Paris, Le Cerf.

If the second edition was held in the same city as the first edition, only indicate the date of the first one in parentheses.

BELTING Hans, 1998 (1993), Image et culte. Une histoire de l’art avant l’époque de l’art, Paris, Le Cerf.

  • Collective Works

ASSIMA-KPATCHA Essohanam et TSIGBE Koffi Nutefé, (éd.), 2013, Le refus de l’ordre colonial en Afrique et au Togo, Lomé, Les Presses de l’Université de Lomé.

If the directors of the book are more than three, use et al.after the three names.

  • Exhibition Catalogues

MARTINEZ Jean Luc et PASQUIER Alain (éd.), 2007, Praxitèle (cat. exposition : Paris, 2007), Paris, Musée du Louvre/Somogy.

  • Conference Papers

CAPODIECI Luisa, FORD Philip, (éd.), 2011, Homère à la Renaissance : mythe et transfigurations (actes de colloque : Rome, 2008), Paris/Rome, Somogy/Académie de France.

  • Research Papers and Dissertations

SALVI Claudia, 2005, Recherches sur Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer, peintre de fleurs, mémoire de DEA sous la direction d’Antoine Schnapper, Université Paris-IV (Paris Sorbonne).

Review Articles.

BLAU Eve, 2008, « L’urbanisme et l’architecture des villes d’Europe centrale pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle », Perspective, n° 3, p. 409-440. (Note, not to write pp.)

  • Articles from collective works, seminar papers or exhibition catalogue:

CAMILLE Michael, 2000, « Before the Gaze. The Internal Senses and Late Medieval Practices of Seeing », in R. Nelson (dir.), Visuality Before and Beyond the Renaissance. Seeing as Others Saw, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 197-223. 

English standards are used for the Anglo-Saxon literature: nouns, adjectives and verbs are capitalized, no space before punctuation.

MOXEY Keith, 1994, The Practice of Theory: Poststructuralism, Cultural Politics, and Art History, Ithaca/Londres, Cornell University Press.

Translators‘ names are not specified for ancient sources:

OVIDE Avide., 1992, Les métamorphoses, Lafaye G. (trad.), Paris, Gallimard.

The non-compliance with editorial standards may result in the rejection of a draft article.


Les Cahiers du CELHTO, Revue du Centre d’études linguistiques et historiques par tradition orale, Niamey, Niger, BP: 878 Niamey (Niger) - Téléphone: (00227) 20 73 54 14 - Fax: (00227) 20 73 36 54 E-mail: publications@celhto.org- Site Web: www.celhto.org


  • Niamey, Niger (878)


  • Monday, April 30, 2018


  • migration, déboire, identité

Reference Urls

Information source

  • Komi Yves TUBLU
    courriel : tublu [at] africa-union [dot] org


CC0-1.0 This announcement is licensed under the terms of Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal.

To cite this announcement

« African migrants in the world: between setbacks, identity and alternative culture », Call for papers, Calenda, Published on Monday, March 05, 2018, https://doi.org/10.58079/zq1

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