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    Culture in War

    Identity ideologies, nationalisms, conflicts: Europe 1870-1922

    The fifty years that go from the Franco-Prussian War to the end of the Great War and the advent of fascism in Italy (early and precursor totalitarian swing in post-war Europe) marks a new phase in representing the ideology of the ‘nation’ and the ‘nature of peoples’. The cultural processes which, between 18th and 19th centuries, had been used as consistent ideological repertoire for the political foundation of modern European nations, supported from the second half of the 19th century, the rapid nationalistic involution of national politics, functional to colonial expansionism and to the ruling continental objectives, but also to withstand and repress internal social conflicts. A cultural and political transition from romantic patriotism to imperialistic nationalism (that which Muarizio Virali has concisely defined “nationalization of patriotism”), for which those that had generally been considered simple differences of character, customs, and social habits between the peoples of nations are transformed into irreconcilable contrasts: the national state is the emanation of a homogeneous people, of a race, and the unshakeable otherness of the foreigner reflects and consolidates this belief. Making use of the instruments provided by disciplines such as socio-psychology, social anthropology, biology, social Darwinism, and with the approximate simplifications of those like Gobineau, Chamberlain, Nordau, Langbehn etc., it is believed that the character of peoples may be defined and thus mark national identities within an all absorbing viewpoint.

                  

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