HomeThe Crusades in Egypt

The Crusades in Egypt

Les croisade en Égypte

History and memories

Histoire et mémoires

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Published on Wednesday, October 22, 2014 by João Fernandes

Summary

Les historiographies arabes et occidentales des croisades orientales sont dynamiques. Les chercheurs explorent désormais des champs quelque peu délaissés par leurs devanciers. Ainsi, dans la lignée d’Alphonse Dupront, les croisades sont désormais plus souvent appréhendées dans le temps long, comme un phénomène mémoriel qui marqua les consciences collectives des peuples d’Orient et d’Occident. Cette journée d’étude vise à mieux comprendre, dans la longue durée, l’impact des croisades sur les hommes et les sociétés d’Occident et d’Orient. En réunissant des chercheurs occidentaux et égyptiens, elle a aussi pour objectif majeur de mettre en dialogue des historiographies de la croisade (arabe, occidentale) qui se méconnaissent. Elle est largement centrée sur l’Égypte, mais s’inscrit dans le cadre plus large du Proche-Orient : aux yeux des croisés eux-mêmes, l’Égypte et le Bilād al-Šām formaient un ensemble peu dissociable.

Announcement

Argument

The interest generated by the Crusades has always been endless. Thus, a broader definition of the Crusade phenomenon emerged among Western historians, who do not limit it either to the two centuries of existence of the Latin states founded during or after the First Crusade nor to the Near East. Yet a significant proportion of the studies on the Crusades tend to focus on the expeditions that aimed to deliver Jerusalem, to sustain the Latin states or to conquer Egypt.

These studies show a strong dynamism of Westerner and Arabic historiographies of the Crusades. Traditionally, these historiographies had a « narrative tendency » (Bull and Kempf, 2010). But historians now explore fields of research that have been somewhat neglected by their predecessors, especially through the use of already exploited manuscript or published sources (Arabic epics, furūsiyya manuals, crusading plans...). Thus, for a few years the Later Crusades and the issues they raise had been the subject of a thorough reexamination. The Crusades are now more often studied in the long term in the line of Alphonse Dupront, like a memorial phenomenon, which left an inflexible mark on the collective consciousness of Eastern and Western peoples.

This one-day seminar follows such a perspective. It aims to better understand, in the long term, the impact of the Oriental Crusades on Western and Eastern men and societies. Bringing together Westerner and Egyptian scholars, it also aims to open up a dialogue between Arabic and Western historiographies of the Crusades who do not communicate much with each other. It focuses on Egypt, the possession of which was quickly seen as the key of the Latin East survival by the Franks and the Westerners. It is also from Egypt that the Ayyūbid then Mamlūk sultans organized the fight against the Crusader states, which they eventually destroyed in 1291.

Over centuries, the crusade was not forgotten. In Western areas the idea of crusading was criticized by those who wished to favor other types of relationships with the Muslim states. Nonetheless, crusading plans putting Egypt as a target continued to be built.  A more or less vivid Islamic memory of the glorious resistance to the Crusade according to the contexts was always felt in Egypt as well as in the whole Near Eastern area. One can wonder whether this memory shaped the relationship between the Muslims and their Christian neighbors for a long time. 

Program

9 am Welcome Address

Introduction (A. el-Shoky, A. Zouache)

9.30 am till 1 pm

First session : Egypt and the Crusades : a key role

Chairman :M. Aurell (Poitiers Univ. - CESM)

  • J. France(Swansea Univ.) – Egypt, the Ǧazīra and Jerusalem. Middle Eastern tensions and the foundation of the Latin states
  • ‘Â. M. M. Ramadân (Fayyoum Univ.) – The relationship between the coinage of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (564-589 AH/1169-1193 AD) and its relation to the conflict against the Crusades
  • U. Tala‘at(Cairo Univ.) - Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn and the fortifications of Egypt before the battle of Ḥaṭṭīn (583 AH/1187 AD)

Refreshments

  • ‘U. Gamal (Sohag Univ.) – La politique des sultans mamelouks baḥrites vis-à-vis des pèlerins et des marchands francs, à la lumière du décret du sultan al-Ašraf Šabān de raǧab 776/1374
  • B. Weber(Toulouse Univ.)- L'Égypte et l'Éthiopie dans les stratégies de croisade (xiiie-xvie s.) : centralité et marginalisation de l'axe nilotique

1 pm till 2 pm - Lunch

2 pm to 5 pm

Second session : Impact and memories

Chairman :U. Talaat (Cairo Univ.)

  • H. ‘A. el-M. Sulayman (Menofia Univ.) – Some remarks about Umarā al-Yamanī’s Historical Writing about the Crusades
  • M. F. Raheel(Société Historique d’Égypte) - Louis IX camping's shades on the Egyptian folklore, model of al-Ẓāhir Baybars epic
  • A. el-Shoky(‘Ayn Shams Univ./Ifao) - The defensive chains in Egypt : to fortify the Mediterranean ports since the Crusades until the arrival of the French campaign

Refreshments

  • M. Aurell (Poitiers Univ.- CESCM) - Using Two Swords theory against Crusade (12th-13th centuries)
  • A. Zouache (CIHAM – UMR 5648, Lyon) – Perception et traces des croisades en Orient

5 pm Conclusion

Références

  • ‘Awāḍ, M. M., Fuṣūl bībliyūġrāfiyya fī ta’rīḫ al-ḥurūb al-ṣalībiyya, Dār ‘Ayn, Le Caire, 1996.
  • Dupront, A., Le mythe de croisade, Gallimard, Paris, 1997, 4 vols.
  • France, J., The Crusades and the Expansion of Catholic Christendom 1000-1714, Routledge, Londres, 2005.
  • Kempf, D. et Bull, M., « L’histoire toute crue : la première croisade au miroir de son histoire », Médiévales 58, printemps 2010, p. 151-160.
  • Paviot, J., Les ducs de Bourgogne, la croisade et l’Orient : fin xive-xve siècle, PUPS, Paris, 2003.
  • Nejedly, M. et Svatek, J. (éd.), Histoire et mémoires des croisades à la fin du Moyen Âge, Méridiennes, Toulouse, 2012.
  • Zouache, A., « Écrire l’histoire des croisades aujourd’hui, en Orient et en Occident », dans R. Abdellatif et al. (éd.), Construire la Méditerranée, penser les transferts culturels. Approches historiographiques et perspectives de recherche, Oldenbourg, Munich, 2012, p. 120-147.

Places

  • Institut français d'archéologie orientale - 37 rue Aly Youssef
    Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt

Date(s)

  • Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Keywords

  • croisades, mémoires, Égypte

Contact(s)

  • Abbès Zouache
    courriel : direction [at] cefas [dot] cnrs [dot] fr

Information source

  • Abbès Zouache
    courriel : direction [at] cefas [dot] cnrs [dot] fr

To cite this announcement

« The Crusades in Egypt », Study days, Calenda, Published on Wednesday, October 22, 2014, https://calenda.org/304269

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