StartseiteRessources naturelles et problématique du développement en Afrique

StartseiteRessources naturelles et problématique du développement en Afrique

Ressources naturelles et problématique du développement en Afrique

Natural resources and the development question in Africa

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Veröffentlicht am Mittwoch, 02. Juni 2021 bei João Fernandes

Zusammenfassung

Issues related to natural resources have always influenced historical dynamics in human societies. This is due to the impact of rock sampling, fauna and flora as well as the availability of water on the transformation of hominids to human species. (Conrad Philip Kottak, 2013: 186-201). It is with this logic that energy resources contributed to the advent of modernity through the transition from hand crafted production to industrialisation. Thus, keeping a constant relationship with the fate of the human species. In fact, the shortage, abundance or denaturation as well as rational usage and the sale of natural resources have constantly been at the centre of societal dynamics. Therefore, the changes that occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries, notably through the industrial revolution (due to coal and oil,) have redefined economic paradigms and the geopolitical, geo-economic and geo-strategic maps of the world (Yves Lacoste, 2006: 6).

Inserat

Argument

Issues related to natural resources have always influenced historical dynamics in human societies. This is due to the impact of rock sampling, fauna and flora as well as the availability of water on the transformation of hominids to human species. (Conrad Philip Kottak, 2013: 186-201). It is with this logic that energy resources contributed to the advent of modernity through the transition from hand crafted production to industrialisation. Thus, keeping a constant relationship with the fate of the human species. In fact, the shortage, abundance or denaturation as well as rational usage and the sale of natural resources have constantly been at the centre of societal dynamics. Therefore, the changes that occurred in the 18 and 19 centuries, notably through the industrial revolution (due to coal and oil,) have redefined economic paradigms and the geopolitical, geo-economic and geo-strategic maps of the world (Yves Lacoste, 2006: 6). This resulted amongst others, in the birth and systematisation of Marxist and Capitalist ideologies, and the hierachisation of states on the international scene (superpowers, world powers, developed countries, developing countries) or the idea of the Western world as being the centre of the world on one side, and that of the rest of the planet as the suburbs (Samir Amine, 1973). However, today we witness a proliferation of globalists and balancing paradigms; which suggest a breach in hierarchical, opposition and domination relationships, these new paradigms have also led to epistemological disjunction attempts (almost always resulting from studies carried on post colonies) (Pape Cissoko, 2007). The effects of the mastery and the almost monopolisation of natural resources by the West continues to trace and shape international dynamics.

As concerns relationships between states, the issue of natural resource exploitation has always been a source of diverse tensions (Ulrich Beck, 2003). The deceptive practices made with or without the involvement of the state, the neglect of ecological risks, the legal but irrational practices, identity folds and spill over effects on local economic landscapes are amongst others the pitfalls that make up the natural resource industry in the South of the Sahara an essentially crisogenic context (René Dumont et Marie-France Mottin, 1980: 75-88). These constraints create an atmosphere of tension amongst stakeholders of the different exploitation projects (firms, investors, public authorities) and the local population. Defined in terms of environmental risks, in terms of the precariousness of the material interests of local residents and legal plunder, these fields of fruitful interactions have been the subject of much literature whose main conclusion can be summed up in the concept of human rights (Alain Pellet, 2000) of Amartya Sen Nobel Price lamed of economic and in redefining the notion of "stakeholders" (Amartya Sen Amartya Sen, 2003) in the investments projects proposed by Jacques Igalens and Sebastien Point. Meanwhile, there exist another field of disarticulation of pre-existing establishments which involves the disorganisation and reorganisation of local economies (Jacques Igalens et Sebastien Point, 2010). In fact, the enhancement of natural resources is a principal vector of multiple economic issues. (Wulson Mvomo Ela, 2003: 5) Beyond their ability to modulate the existing macro economies, it generally provokes a massive distribution of currency in the localities which harbour exploitation sites, and redefine the commercial dynamics which promised a commercial value to land and endangered floral and wildlife species (Martin-Pétry et Naygotimti Bambé, 2005: 45). Another phenomenon observed in this complex universe of socio-economic changes is the outburst of a generalised inflation associated to a total deprivation from usage, making of political decision-makers and investors the real beneficial owners at the detriment of the local population.

The cases of oil exploitation in Gabon, Cameroon, and Congo as well as in Chad and Equatorial Guinea are a few example (Michael Watts, 2006: 1-16). One can also mention in this same list, the exploitation of Uranium from the region of air in Niger, that of diamond in the region of Konou in Sierra Leone, the equatorial forest wood in Central Africa or the copper, cobalt, coltan, gold and diamond in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The multitude of micro-scenographies such as the Prinus Africana and gold mining fields in Cameroon and the Central African Republic are not to be left out. This usually sudden upheaval of local economies has been perceived as a secondary concern by both investors and the central public authority of the producing country and the scientists. Generally considered as a consequence of extraction initiatives, these disruptions are however the starting points for structuring socio-historical itineraries, plural and complex which ultimately address the decisive question of the well-being of neighbouring populations (Moshe Cohen-Eliya et Yoav Hammer, 2011: 265- 287).

Main themes

This research project seeks to question, through theoretical analysis and case studies, the following issues:

  •  Exploitation of natural resources and economic inflation in Africa;
  •  Natural resources legislation and economic challenges for neighbouring populations.
  •  Natural resources exploitation, civil society and economic interest of neighbouring populations;
  •  Natural resources exploitations, respect for the rights and survival challenges of neighbouring populations;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources, demographic pressure and illicit economy;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources and inflation of land prices;
  •  Illegal exploitation and circulation of natural resources;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources, multifaceted migration and economic competition;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources and economics of poaching;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources and precarious jobs;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources and the sex trade;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources and trade in national identities;
  •  Exploitation of natural resources and the process of urbanization and peri-urbanization;
  •  Natural resources and the assault on African countries;
  •  The majors and local extractive firms:
  •  Western and Chinese diplomacy in the face of African natural resources:
  •  Central powers in Africa, natural resources and Western interests;
  •  Border conflicts and natural resources in Africa
  •  Natural resources and border governance;
  •  State instability and natural resources in Africa
  •  Parallel diplomacy and predation of natural resources in Africa;
  •  Sub-state practices and sale of natural resources in Africa;
  •  Resource exploitation and stagnation of social inequalities in Africa
  •  Exploitation of natural resources and transformation of collective mentality in Africa;
  •  Saving function of natural resources illusion and / or disillusion;
  •  Etc.

Reference norms

The scientific committee informs you that the texts to be submitted must comply with the following standards:

  •  The title of the article should be in upper case (printable characters)
  •  A signature comprising the name of the author (s) in lower case with a capital initial, the full name of the home institution, the author's email and telephone number presented with the international code;
  •  An abstract in French and an in English each of 15 lines maximum
  •  A minimum of three words and a maximum of five keywords
  •  An introduction;
  •  A body
  •  A conclusion
  •  A sources and bibliography section.

The parts of the text

1. The titles and subtitles should be presented as follows:

1. For the heading of the first section

1.1. For the first subheading of the first section

1.2. For the second subheading of the first section, etc...

2. For the heading of the second section

2.1. For the first subheading of the second section

2.2. For the second subheading of the second section, etc...

3. Headings, sub-headings are in bold and should be indented (1 cm) as well as each beginning paragraph. Subheadings are to be avoided as much as possible to facilitate the final assembly of the book, it is required to manually number the titles, tables, and figures.

4. The conclusion must be brief and emphasis should be laid on the results and the original significance of the research

5. The bibliographic reference adopted is that of the notes incorporated into the text. It goes thus: (Name of the author, year of publication: page from which the information has been taken). Example: (Mbonji Edjenguèlè, 1988: 7)

6. Source Referencing (oral sources, archives, book sources, periodicals or official publications) in the body of the text are put at the footnote, while mentioning if possible the page or pages containing the information given.

7. For archival documents, indicate the repository (the department), the place, the symbol (series and sub-series specifying the number), the document used with details of date, author and, if possible, page where is the given information.

8. In the sources and bibliography section, the sources consist in showing, in a detailed manner, the oral sources and other primary or first-hand documents consulted and/or cited. They are presented as such:

- For oral sources: names of informants in alphabetical order, on a table with a serial number, surname and first name of the informants, age, quality and profession of the informants, date and place of the interview ;

- For official publications, follow the logic of books that is, from the most recent to the oldest. But in the case of periodicals, the name of the institution or the author should be mentioned, the headings in italics, as well as the year and all the other information necessary for identification (number, nature ...);

9. For archival documents, indicate the repository (the department), the place, the symbol (series and sub-series specifying the number), file title.

10. The bibliography the bibliography consists in indicating the works consulted and/or cited. It is classified in alphabetical order (in reference to author’s names). The following presentation is recommended:

- For a book: name (in lower case with an upper-case initial) and upper-case initial of the first name, year of publication in parentheses, title in italics, publisher, and place of publication; example: Mbonji Edjenguèlè, (1988), Les cultures de développement en Afrique : Essai sur l’impossible développement sans révolution culturelle, Yaoundé, Osisris-Africa ; Coquery-Vidrovitch Cathérine, (1988), Pour une histoire du développement. Etats, sociétés, développement, Paris, l'Harmattan.

- For an article: name (in lower case with an upper case initial) and the initial of the first name, year "The title of the article in quotes" (without italics), the journal title in italics, the number, place of publication, identification of the beginning and end pages of the article in the journal. Example: Kojo Oppong Nkhrumah, Orkoh Emmanuel, Mensah Owusu Augustine, (2016), "Exploring the Budget Deficit-Economic Growth Nexus : New Evidence from Ghana", in Journal for the Advancement of Developing Economies (JADE), Volume 5, Issue 1 ; Titi Nwel Pierre, (1982), "Mbombok à la Tête du Lignage Basaa, Nature et Formes de Pouvoir dans les Sociétés Dites Acéphales : exemples camerounais", Travaux et Documents de l’O.R.S.T.O.M., no142, ORSTOM, Paris, Compte-rendu journée scientifique de Yaoundé, 1er mars 1978, pp.91-99.

11. The language of publication of the book is either French or English. The publication of a text in a language different from the two cited above is subject to exceptional authorisation from the administration of the work. Terms foreign to French or English are in italics and without quotes.

12. All quotes must be put in italics without quotes. Quotes of more than four lines are indented, single spaced, size 10.

13. Terms foreign to French or English are in italics and without quotes except quotes in foreign languages (which are both in italics and quotes).

14. The work prohibits from using underlining, which is replaced by italics.

15. The presentation of tables, figures, maps, graphs, etc. must respect the mirror which is 16.24. These documents must mention the source, year and scale (for maps).

Submission deadlines and terms

  •  Opining of the call of publication: March 03, 2021
  •  Sending of proposals for contributions (Title, summary of 150 words with 10% of reduction or additional margin, 5 keywords) in French and abstract in English not later than June 25, 2021

  •  Notification of the scientific committee: June 30, 2021
  •  Reception of final articles: (15 pages maximum in Word format, Times New Romans, font size 12, line spacing 1 (simple) margins 2.5) September 30, 2021
  •  Publication of the book: December 2021

Scientific Committee

  •  Professor Canute Ngwa University of Bamenda ;
  •  Prof Talla Richard Tantoh(A.P) University of Bamenda ;
  •  Prof Teke Charles Ngiewih (M.C) Université de Yaoundé I ;
  •  Prof Ndille Roland (A.P) University of Buea ;
  •  Prof Kam Henry Kah (A.P) University of Buea ;
  •  Prof Augustin Emmanuel Ebongue (A.P) University of Buea ;
  •  Prof Pierre Fadibo (M.C) Université de Ngaoundéré ;
  •  Prof AbdouramanHalirou(M.C) Université de Ngaoundéré ;
  •  Prof FrançoisWasouni (M.C) Université de Maroua ;
  •  Dr Eric SournaLoumtouang (M.R/CNE) MINRESI ;
  •  Dr Sévérin Nwaha (Lecturer) University of Buea ;

Review Committee

  •  Prof Pierre Fadibo (M.C) Université de Ngaoundéré ;
  •  Prof Augustin Emmanuel Ebongue (A.P) University of Buea ;
  •  Dr Pierre Essengue (Lecturer) University of Buea ;
  •  Dr Sévérin Nwaha (Lecturer) University of Buea ;
  •  Dr Paule Marie Kougnag (Assistant Lecturer) University of Buea ;
  •  Dr Souleyman Amadou (C.C) Université de Douala ;
  •  Dr JoséDonadoni Manga Kalniga (C.R/CNE) MINRESI ;
  •  Dr Abdou NdikamNjifotié (C.R/CNE) MINRESI ;
  •  Dr Nicolas Serge Ndock (Assistant) Université de Ngaoundéré ;
  •  Dr Edouard Epiphane Yogo (Assistant) Université de Yaoundé II ;
  •  Dr Fabilou (Assistant) Université de Ngaoundéré ;
  •  Dr Nicodème Glo (Assistant Lecturer) University of Buea.

Bibliography

Amin Samir, (1973), Le développement inégal, Essai sur les formations sociales du capitalisme périphérique, Paris Ed. de Minuit, 4

Beck Ulrich, (2003), Pouvoir et contre-pouvoir à l’heure de la mondialisation, Paris, Flamarion.

Cissoko Pape, (2007), "Écrire l'Afrique-Monde, sous la direction d'Achille Mbembe et Felwineg Sarr, Philippeh Reygéd., 2017", http://www.ichrono.info/index.php/b log/item/3676-ecrire-l-afrique-monde-sous-la-direction-d-achille-mbembe-etfelwine-sarr-philippe-rey-ed-2017?, consulted, 17th March 2018.

Conrad Phillip Kottak, (2013), Anthropology. Appreciating human diversity, Michigan, Mc Graw-Hill.

Dumont et Mottin Marie-France, 1980, L’Afrique étranglée, Paris, Editions du Seuil.

Igalens Jacques et Point Sébastien, (2010), Vers une nouvelle gouvernance des entreprises. L’entreprise face à ces parties prenantes, Paris, Dunod.

Lacoste Yves, (2006) "Géopolitique du pétrole", www.extpdf.com/yves%20lacoste%20pdfpdf60.html, consulted, 27th October 2019.

Martin-Pétry et Naygotimti Bambé, (2005) Le pétrole du Tchad. Rêve ou cauchemar pour la population ? Paris, Edition Karthal.

Moshe Cohen-Eliya et Yoav Hammer, (2011), "Nontransparent lobbying as a democratic failure" William and Mary policy review, Vol. 2, pp. 265- 287.

Mvomo Ela Wulson, (2005), "Pétrostratégie et appels d’emprise dans le Golfe de Guinée", Enjeux, Bulletin d’Analyses Géopolitiquespour l’Afrique Centrale, n° 22, janvier-mars, Yaoundé, pp. 7-11.

Pellet Alain, (2000), "Droit-de-l’hommisme et droit international", Droits fondamentaux, http://www.droits fondamentaux.org/spip.php?article27, consulted 23th July 2012.

Watts Michael, (2006), "Empire of Oil: Capitalism Dispossession and the Scramble for Africa", Monthly Review No 58, pp. 1-16

Orte

  • Rue du Lac
    Yaoundé, Kamerun (+237)

Daten

  • Freitag, 25. Juni 2021

Schlüsselwörter

  • Ressources naturelles, développement, Afrique

Kontakt

  • Erick Sourna Loumtouang
    courriel : ericksourna [at] yahoo [dot] com
  • Nicodeme Glo
    courriel : nicodeme_glo [at] yahoo [dot] fr

Informationsquelle

  • Erick Sourna Loumtouang
    courriel : ericksourna [at] yahoo [dot] com

Zitierhinweise

« Ressources naturelles et problématique du développement en Afrique », Beitragsaufruf, Calenda, Veröffentlicht am Mittwoch, 02. Juni 2021, https://calenda.org/882249

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